The fecal flora of 10 infants with vitamin K deficiency (VKD) and 10 healthy infants was examined. All the infants were breast-fed. In the infants with VKD, the total counts (P less than 0.01) and the numbers of bifidobacteria (P less than 0.001) were lower than in the healthy infants, whereas bacteroides, veillonella and enterococci were present in greater numbers in the feces of infants with VKD. The incidence of the Bacteroides fragilis group was higher (P less than 0.05) in the infants with VKD than in the healthy infants. A significant reduction (P less than 0.05) in Bifidobacterium breve was shown in the infants with VKD. The data emphasize the abnormal flora in infants with VKD.