The occurrence of peroxisomes (microbodies), their cytochemical characteristics and their ultrastructural relationship to the neighboring organelles were investigated in the ventricular myocardium of four rodent (rat, rabbit, gerbil, and guinea pig) and two primate (Macaca java and Tupaya) species. The hearts were fixed by vascular perfusion with glutaraldehyde and incubated in alkaline diaminobenzidine media for visualization of catalase. The electron-dense reaction product of catalase was found in the myocardium of all examined species and was localized in 0.2--0.5 mum oval particles, surrounded by a single limiting membrane and located usually at the junction of I and A bands. The peroxisomes in the hearts of gerbil and Macaca java were especially long and tortuous. A close spatial association was found between the myocardial peroxisomes and mitochondria, lipid droplets, and the membranes of sarcoplasmic reticulum, especially the so-called junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum. These observations demonstrate the consistent occurrence of peroxisomes in the heart of various mammalian species and suggest that peroxisomes have important metabolic and physiological functions in myocardium.