Two Drosophila mutants are described in which the connections between the input to and the output from the mushroom bodies is largely interrupted. In all forms of the flies (larva, imago, male, female) showing the structural defect, olfactory conditioning is impaired. Learning is completely abolished when electroshock is used as reinforcement and partially suppressed in reward learning with sucrose. No influence of the mushroom body defect on the perception of the conditioning stimuli or on spontaneous olfactory behavior is observed. The defect seems not to impair learning of color discrimination tasks or operant learning involving visual cues.