It was found that ddY mice derived from non-inbred dd-stock mice brought from Germany before 1920 and then raised in Japan developed spontaneously IgA dominant deposition in the glomerular mesangium. In this report we give a detailed natural history of the renal pathology of those mice. The animals were fed rodent laboratory chow and sacrificed in groups of 9 to 10 at 6, 10, 16, 24, 28, 40, and 59 weeks of age. The bladder urine was analyzed, serum immunoglobulins were measured, and the kidney specimens were evaluated with light, fluorescent, and electron microscopy. Proteinuria was (plus) to (2 plus) after 28 weeks and (2 plus) to (3 plus) at 59 weeks with negative hematuria. Mesangial cell proliferation began to appear at 16 weeks, then progressed to a definite proliferative glomerulonephritis. At 59 weeks an additional increase of the mesangial matrix occurred. By immunofluorescence, there were IgG of (2 plus), IgM (plus) to (2 plus), IgA (plus) and C3 (plus) in the glomeruli until 28 weeks. However, IgA started to be dominant at 40 weeks and the glomerular pattern was IgA (2 plus) to (3 plus), IgG (plus) to (2 plus), IgM (+/-) to (plus) and C3 (plus) to (2 plus) at 59 weeks. Polyclonal IgA and IgG2a among immunoglobulins steeply rose at 40 weeks, and at 59 weeks IgA increased by 850%, IgG2a by 280%, IgG1 by 170%, IgG2b by 90%, and IgM by 60%, as compared with their level at 6 weeks. There was no anti-nuclear antibody. Thus, ddY mice, at least after the age of 40 weeks, can be used as a new animal model for spontaneous IgA nephritis. The probable origin of IgA is also discussed.