In a prospective study of 50 patients with visceral leishmaniasis, laboratory abnormalities suggestive of renal involvement were not infrequent. Proteinuria and/or microscopic hematuria or pyuria were observed in 51% of such cases. Twenty-four hour urinary protein excretion was elevated in 57% of patients in all cases below 1g/24 hours. An abnormal acid-load test was demonstrated in 12 of 18 patients studied before therapy of the parasitic infection with N-methyl-glucamine. Of interest was the demonstration of tubulo-interstitial involvement in the renal histology of all seven patients studied; also, in five of seven patients there was a proliferative glomerulonephritis, usually mild, on histologic examination. In general, there was a tendency to subsidence of abnormal laboratory findings within one month after specific therapy. Renal involvement in visceral leishmaniasis was mild and seemed to revert with the cure of the leishmanial infection.