The glycosphingolipids of human thyroid were isolated and characterized by gas-liquid chromatography and sequential enzymic hydrolysis. The major purified components were identified as glucosyl- and galactosyl-ceramides, lactosyl- and galabiosylceramides, globotriaosyl- and globotetraosylceramides. The long-chain base analyses showed a high proportion of phytosphingosine in glycosylceramide and galabiosylceramide. Fatty acids in 22:0, 24:0, 24:1 prevailed, especially in the cerebroside fraction, with a significant content of alpha-hydroxylated species in galactosylceramide. Female thyroid had a very low content of galabiosylceramide and a higher content of glucosylceramide, as compared to male. No significant difference was found in the other neutral glycosphingolipids and gangliosides.