The association of endometrial carcinoma (EC) with endocrinopathies manifested by obesity, nulliparity, and/or increased estrogen levels of exogenous or endogenous estrogens is now well-known. EC is also seen in patients without these findings. Are these different cancers? Seventy-four cases of EC were reviewed and classified into two groups: group I, with associated adenomatous hyperplasia (AH), 31 cases; and group II, without associated AH, 43 cases. Group I included more well-differentiated and less invasive carcinomas; histologically, the pattern was glandular in all cases. In Group II, the EC were less well-differentiated, more invasive, and included, besides adenocarcinomas, clear-cell, papillary, and anaplastic carcinomas with giant tumor cells. Squamoid features were found in both groups. The possible existence of two types of EC, a hormonal-dependent EC associated with AH (which is believed to result from hyperestrogenism, and to have a better clinical prognosis), and an "independent" EC, not associated with AH, is discussed.