The aim of this study was to investigate menstrual history, reproductive functions, fertility regulation and gynaecological operations is a representative sample of middle-aged women. A sample consisting of 1746 women aged 40-66 was randomly selected. Of those initially selected, a total of 1413 (81%) were investigated. Gynaecological data were acquired by means of questionnaires. Eighty-six percent of menstruating women reported a cycle length of 22-30 days and menstrual flows lasting 4-7 days. The median age at natural menopause was 50.9 yr. The oldest menstruating women were 57 yr old. Curettage had been performed in 53%, and 9% were hysterectomised. Every fourth woman had had three or more children, and 15% were nulliparous. Abortion (spontaneous or induced) was reported by 28% of the women. Of 714 menstruating women, 62% were utilising contraceptive methods, among which barrier or natural methods predominated. Nine percent of women aged 40-44 used combined oral contraceptives. Previous or current use of contraceptive pills was reported by 32% of all the women, and of these 20% had been on the pill for 10 or more yr.