Mood and appetite during minimal-carbohydrate and carbohydrate-supplemented hypocaloric diets

Am J Clin Nutr. 1985 Sep;42(3):371-9. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/42.3.371.


After a baseline period of free-feeding, 20 obese outpatients alternated between four 2-wk periods of minimal-carbohydrate diet (800 kcal; 58% protein and 42% fat by weight) and of a carbohydrate-supplemented diet (1,000 kcal; 42% protein, 30% fat, and 28% carbohydrate). In a comparison of psychological adjustment during the baseline and low-calorie diets, the initial 2 wk of dieting was associated with a decrease in appetite and elevation of psychological well-being, regardless of the composition of the diet. Thereafter, appetite and mood approached basal levels. Further changes in these psychological reactions to dieting did not vary with the type of diet. There was no support for the idea that a minimal-carbohydrate, protein-supplemented fast decreases appetite and elevates mood more in comparison with a similar diet containing enough carbohydrate to minimize ketosis.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid
  • Adult
  • Appetite / physiology*
  • Diet, Reducing / psychology*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Emotions*
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydroxybutyrates / analysis
  • Ketosis / psychology
  • Male
  • Obesity / drug therapy
  • Obesity / psychology
  • Self Concept


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Hydroxybutyrates
  • 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid