A novel series of omega-pyridylalkenoic acids has been prepared by applying the Wittig reaction. Modifications were made in the omega-aryl moiety, the alkylene chain length, the alpha-methylene group adjacent to the carbonyl group, and the carboxyl group of the molecule. The compounds were tested as inhibitors of thromboxane synthetase in an in vitro assay and in ex vivo experiments with the rat. Most members of this new class of thromboxane synthetase inhibitors (TXSI) showed good activity in both assay systems. (E)-7-Phenyl-7-(3-pyridyl)-6-heptenoic acid (9c; CV-4151) was one of the most potent compounds in in vitro enzyme inhibition (IC50 = 2.6 X 10(-8) M) and, when orally administered, the most potent and long acting in the inhibition of blood thromboxane A2 production in the rat. New conceptual models I-III for the enzyme-substrate (prostaglandin H2, PGH2) and the enzyme-TXSI interactions are proposed for understanding the molecular design and structure-activity relations.