4-Hydroxy-f-androstene-3,17-dione (4-OH-A) when tested at various concentrations was found to inhibit markedly the conversion of 4-andorstene-3,17-dione to estrogens inhuman placental and rat ovarian microsomes. To obtain evidence that estrogen biosynthesis could also be reduced in vivo with 4-OH-A, rats were treated sc at a dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight. After 3 h the ovarian veins were cannulated and blood collected. Estradiol concentrations in the plasma were reduced by 80% compared to control values during the proestrous surge and on Day 4 of pregnancy. 4-OH-A was also found to be effective in controlling estrogen-dependent reproductive and neoplastic processes. In rats treated from Day 2-7 of pregnancy, implantation of fertilized ova was completely prevented in some rats, while in others either implantation was delayed or the development of implants was retarded. 4-OH-A treatment of rats having estrogen-dependent breast tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene caused 80% of the tumors to regress significantly in 4 weeks of treatment; 42% of these regressed completely.