The incidence of Hirschsprung disease was studied in a series of almost 700,000 consecutive livebirths in British Columbia from 1964-1982, by means of the records of a health surveillance registry that uses multiple sources of ascertainment. The estimated liveborn incidence rate for Hirschsprung disease was 1 in 4,417 livebirths (156 cases out of 689,118 livebirths). Data pertaining to sex ratio, additional anomalies, recurrence, and mortality were also analyzed over the caseload period 1952 to 1983. A total of 29.8% of cases had some additional anomaly--the majority being nonregional anomalies in other systems or more distantly in the gastrointestinal tract. Cardiovascular and gastrointestinal anomalies not a direct consequence of Hirschsprung disease were the most frequent additional anomalies found, occurring in 10 and 12 of 178 cases, respectively. Sensorineural anomalies were also frequent, occurring in 12 of 178 cases. Clinical implications arising from the study regarding the neonatal assessment of infants with these anomalies are discussed.