Fragile X syndrome [fra (X)] is currently accepted as the second most frequent chromosomal disorder associated with developmental disability. Although next to Down syndrome in frequency, no postmortem studies of confirmed adult cases had been reported. The autopsy examination of a 62-year-old, moderately retarded man with the fra (X) syndrome confirmed the preferential involvement of cerebral and testicular structures in this disorder. Dendritic spine abnormalities of the type observed in trisomic chromosomal disorders were associated with synaptic immaturity. Severe testicular hypogonadism accompanied bilateral macro-orchidism, normal penis, and unilateral hydrocele. Valvular, articular, and testicular interstitial compartments showed normal histochemical staining characteristics for glycoproteins and lipids.