The risk of renal death is examined in the United States population 15 years of age and older with and without diabetes. The renal mortality rate is 174.6 per 100,000 among people with diabetes and 42.5 per 100,000 among people without diabetes. The relative risk of renal mortality is 4.1 for diabetics, age-adjusted relative risk, 2.6. The risk of renal mortality is highest in young people with diabetes. Rates of renal mortality are higher than previously believed among Whites with diabetes and among women with diabetes.