Previous studies have shown that rat pups have an enhanced metabolic activity to familiar odors in specific glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. The present study examined extracellularly recorded mitral cell responses to odors in this glomerular region, in odor-familiar and odor-unfamiliar pups. Mitral cells in odor-familiar pups had significantly fewer excitatory and more inhibitory responses to the familiar odor than controls. There were no differences between groups in responses to a novel odor. These results demonstrate that neonatal exposure to odors selectively alters subsequent mitral cell responsiveness to that odor.