The duration of long-term potentiation (LTP) of the monosynaptic excitatory Schaffer collateral-commissural input to hippocampal neurons of the CA1 region was examined in the in vitro slice. Relatively stable evoked potentials were obtained under conventional perfusion conditions at least for 10 hours. Tetanic stimulation (100 Hz, 1 sec) increased the population spike (pop-spike) amplitude by about 150% and the slope of the field-EPSP by about 30% over the pre-LTP baseline, whereas the latency and peak latency of the pop-spike decreased. In comparison to control experiments (same number of stimuli at 0.2 Hz) the differences were statistically significant for 2 hr (field-EPSP) and for greater than or equal to 10 hr (pop-spike), respectively. Repeated tetanization (3 X 100 Hz/1 sec), however, substantially prolongs EPSP-LTP (greater than or equal to 10 hr) and doubles the approximated half-life of pop-spike LTP. The threshold current intensity to elicit pop-spike responses decreased after the induction of LTP. Furthermore, the smaller field-EPSP values necessary to evoke near-threshold pop-spikes demonstrate an E-S potentiation (left-shift) at least in the low-intensity range. While the total duration of potentiation of the different parameters has not been determined, all the above mentioned effects could be observed at least 10 hr following the repeated tetanization. It is proposed that the slice preparation is suitable for the investigation of mechanisms of a postulated late phase of LTP if appropriate conditions are used.