The concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) in the serum of 42 breast cancer patients were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Forty percent of the patients had elevated GH levels while only 17% had elevated PRL levels. These findings suggest a relationship between GH and breast cancer; a weaker correlation exists between PRL and this malignancy. In addition, total lactogens in the serum were measured by a bioassay (BA). The BA/RIA (GH + PRL) ratio was greater in the breast cancer patients than the controls, indicating that variant forms of the hormones with higher than normal biological activity might be present.