Thirty-three Monteggia fracture-dislocations occurring in patients aged 2 to 15 years were reviewed. A follow-up of 2 to 7 years in 25 patients revealed that 88% had good to excellent results and 12% had results which were fair or poor. Closed reduction was successful in 24 of 28 cases and appeared to be very effective. Open reduction was required only for older children or when treatment was begun late. A mild hyperextension deformity at the elbow noted on follow-up of patients with anterior dislocation of the radial head seemed to support the theory that the injury is caused by hyperextension. A new classification of Monteggia fracture-dislocations in children is proposed.