The correlation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum concentration quotients was used as a method for identification of amino acids which are transported by a common carrier system across the blood-CSF barrier. Isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and lysine were found to compete for the same carrier system. This group of amino acids in man was found to be different from the system described as a neutral amino acid carrier at the blood-brain barrier in rats. In man, methionine and tryptophan do not compete with the other neutral amino acids for the same carrier system. In contrast, lysine as a basic amino acid is found to be correlated with the same transport system as the five neutral amino acids. A graph for the evaluation of pathological amino acid concentrations in CSF is presented. Patients with a blood-CSF barrier dysfunction for proteins showed partly normal, partly increased, CSF/serum concentration quotients for the amino acids. Hydroxyproline could be identified as a constituent of the amino acid pool in CSF. For proline and hydroxyproline a special control system has to be suggested because of their smaller biological variance in CSF than in blood. Contrary to the other amino acids proline and hydroxyproline have a smaller biological variation in CSF than in serum.