In this report a review is given on research and development work in primary health care (PHC) in Sweden. PHC has by tradition been very weak in Sweden. As a result of the new Health Care Act of 1983, however, PHC has entered an era of rapid development. A brief historical description of primary health care research activities is given. These have initially been concentrated at a few field research stations, under the guidance of departments of social medicine during the 1970s. Since 1980, departments of general practice have also been set up in Sweden. Even though most research activities are conducted at specific research units in PHC, the results from a survey in the Autumn of 1982 show that much is happening elsewhere: 31 percent of the 712 PHC centres have ongoing projects, altogether 520. The majority (142/520) are taking place in Stockholm county. The projects are predominantly within the field of epidemiology, preventive medicine and health services research. Consequently few projects concern purely clinical questions.