Two hundred episodes of fungemia that occurred at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between January 1, 1978, and June 30, 1982, are reviewed and compared with those seen from 1974 through 1977. The total number of episodes of fungemia per year increased by 30.6%, episodes per 100 new lymphoma and solid tumor patients increased by 73% and 95%, respectively, and episodes per 100 new leukemia patients decreased by 50%. Fungemia also occurred earlier during hospitalization, and embolic skin lesions were a common early sign of Candida tropicalis fungemia. Mortality was not significantly different with and without amphotericin B therapy in fungemic patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or aplastic anemia (51 of 70 vs. 21 of 24) or solid tumors (29 of 36 vs. 29 of 43); however, some patients appeared to benefit from combination therapy with amphotericin B and flucytosine. The prevalence of disseminated candidiasis at autopsy was the same in treated (11 of 15) and untreated (8 of 11) patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and aplastic anemia, but it was significantly lower in treated (none of 8) than in untreated (5 of 11) patients with solid tumors.