After years in its decrease, cervical mycobacterial adenitis is once again an increasing problem in Los Angeles County. We reviewed 54 cases of cervical lymphadenopathies treated over ten years. Twenty-five (46%) of these patients were found to have mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis. Medical approaches often failed to conclusively diagnose this disease. In our series, none of the patients with cervical adenopathies (36%) treated only medically regressed, even after an average time of 18 months of antituberculosis drug treatment. The treatment of choice seems to be surgical excision and long-term antituberculosis drugs. Surgery provides a rapid tissue diagnosis and confirms the bacterial type, including atypical mycobacterium. This approach is simple, shortens hospitalization, is cost-effective, and carries a low morbidity.