A novel human glioma-associated extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein has been identified by murine monoclonal antibody 81C6. The glycoprotein, designated GMEM, is expressed in the ECM of glioma and mesenchymal cell cultures, in the perivascular matrix of endothelial proliferations of human gliomas, and in the stroma of human glioma xenografts in athymic mice, where it has been used as a target antigen for monoclonal antibody tumor localization and radioimaging. We report here on the immunochemical and biochemical characterization of GMEM. Polyacrylamide gel analysis of immunoprecipitated [3H]-leucine- and [3H]-glucosamine-labeled ECM from the human glioma cell line U-251MG has shown that GMEM is a high-molecular-weight macromolecule (Mr approximately 1,000,000) composed of Mr approximately 230,000 disulfide-bonded glycoprotein subunits. Immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, and one-dimensional peptide map analysis have shown that GMEM is distinct from human fibroblast and plasma fibronectin. These results support previous immunohistology and absorption analysis findings, indicating that GMEM is distinct from fibronectin, laminin, and glycosaminoglycans secreted by U-251MG.