Some characteristics, including cultural dislocation, are common to various trachomatous populations. Cultural changes or behavioral modifications and the utilization of certain health-related hardware are needed for the eradication of trachoma. Without appropriate cultural changes, various health-promotion efforts (e.g., birth control and malaria control programs) generally fail. With such changes, these programs are often successful; examples include health-promoting activities among Maori, Indian, and Australian populations. Community-based trachoma action consists of the provision of appropriately chosen health-related hardware and the instigation of activities that encourage its use. In the designing of these activities, the following factors are important: an understanding of the history and "real time" situation of the trachomatous group; a commitment to the group's welfare and general advancement; an appreciation of other health-related efforts that may be required before, during, or after the development of the trachoma control program; and support from and involvement of the client group at all times and at all levels.