To study the occurrence of rheumatoid factors (RF) in relation to the activity of rheumatoid arthritis and the occurrence of vasculitis, RF of IgM, IgA, and IgG classes were measured in sera from 35 patients with definite or classic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using ELISA. For 26 patients, the RF levels were studied longitudinally and compared with changes in the articular index. Although IgM RF was occasionally found in patients without RA, IgA and/or IgG RF were almost exclusively associated with RA. The titers of IgM, IgA, and IgG RF were significantly higher in sera from patients with clinically diagnosed rheumatoid vasculitis than in sera from patients without vasculitis. No significant correlation between changes in the articular index and changes in titer of any class-specific RF could be found for the group of RA patients as a whole. However, in individual patients, increases or decreases in IgM and IgG RF titer were significantly correlated with an increase or decrease in the articular index.