A comprehensive glaucoma screening of residents of three urban areas in southern Israel, aged 40 years and above, was performed between 1982 and 1984. Among other factors tested, intraocular pressure (IOP) and refractive status were recorded and the association between them was analyzed. Information on both factors was available in 2,403 (4,821 eyes) of the 2,594 persons participating. There were significantly more myopes among persons with IOPs of more than 20 mm Hg than with lower IOPs. Mean IOP increased gradually from 14.19 mm Hg in hypermetropes to 16.00 mm Hg among high myopes. Furthermore, the association between refractive status and IOP was stronger among Jews of North African or Asian origin than among Jews of European origin.