Testicular size, semen characteristics and serum reproductive hormone levels were studied in 1239 normal Chinese men. The mean testicular size of 17 ml in this group of subjects was similar to other reports in Orientals but was smaller than that reported in Caucasians. Semen volume, and the sperm count, motility and morphology were comparable to those described for Caucasian subjects. The cervical mucus penetration test (Kremer's test) and the zona-free hamster egg penetration test were also studied in some of the subjects. Age showed a positive correlation with the serum levels of FSH and LH, which were highly correlated with each other. Sperm concentration and the total sperm count were positively correlated with testicular volume, the length of abstinence, the % of sperm with an oval head, and the zona-free hamster egg penetration test, but were negatively correlated with serum FSH. Sperm motility was negatively correlated with the duration of abstinence but was positively correlated with the % normal sperm. The results constitute a normal data base from Chinese men for comparison with studies in male infertility and fertility regulation.