The technique and results of conjunctival autograft transplantation for advanced and recurrent pterygium are presented for 57 eyes of 54 patients. The pterygia were primary in 16 eyes and recurrent in 41; among the latter group, 14 patients had diplopia resulting from cicatricial involvement of the medial rectus muscle. In all cases, free conjunctival grafts from the superotemporal bulbar conjunctiva of the same eye were used to resurface exposed sclera and extraocular muscle. There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperative follow-up ranges from 1 to 67 months, with a mean of 24 months. Only three pterygia have recurred (5.3%); two were successfully remedied by a second conjunctival autograft, whereas the third did not require an additional procedure. In all 14 patients with diplopia, extraocular movement was restored. We recommend this surgical approach as a safe and effective means of treating pterygia complicated by conjunctival scarring with extraocular muscle involvement and requiring concurrent fornix reconstruction.