We studied the allelic frequency of the hemoglobin beta chain (Hbb) of wild mice, Mus musculus, collected from 46 localities, mostly in Asia and surrounding areas. The wild populations in the northern part of China, Korea, and the central part of Japan exhibited an almost monomorphic distribution of Hbbp. In the southern part of Asia, the frequency of Hbbp decreased and Hbbd was predominant. Although Hbbs and Hbbd are generally found in Europe, the Hbbp allele was present in Southeastern Europe (Bulgaria). In the light of these results, the Hbbp allele might have originated in mice of northern Asia.