A protein that specifically enhances up to 13-fold the rate of copying of poly(dT) template by DNA polymerase alpha was partially purified from chromatin of regenerating mouse liver cells. This stimulatory protein, designated herein factor D, also increases 2-3-fold the activity of polymerase alpha with heat-denatured DNA and with primed, circular single-stranded phi X174 DNA. However, factor D has no detectable effect on the copying by polymerase alpha of poly(dG), poly(dA), and poly(dC) templates. Activity of mouse DNA polymerase beta is not affected by factor D with all the tested templates. In contrast to polymerase alpha, factor D is resistant to inactivation by N-ethylmaleimide and calcium ions, but it is readily heat-inactivated at 46 degrees C and is inactivated by trypsin digestion. Partially purified factor D is not associated with detectable activities of DNA polymerase, DNA primase, deoxyribonucleotidyl terminal transferase, and endo- or exodeoxyribonuclease.