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, 51 (4), 1303-11

Mammary Nodules in Dogs During Four Years' Treatment With Megestrol Acetate or Chlormadinone Acetate

Mammary Nodules in Dogs During Four Years' Treatment With Megestrol Acetate or Chlormadinone Acetate

L W Nelson et al. J Natl Cancer Inst.


PIP: A 7 year study of megestrol and chlormadinone in female dogs is in progress. This report characterized histopathologically 60 mammary nodules during the first 4 years of the study. 100 purebred female beagles, 6-12 months of age, were randomly assigned to 5 equal groups. One group was used as a control. Oral doses were .01, .10, and .25 mg/kg/day of megestrol acetate in coconut oil in capsules and of chlormadinone acetate .25 mg/kg/day in lactose tablets. These doses were 1, 10, and 25 times the projected dose of megestrol for humans and about 25 times the human dose of chlormadinone. After 2 years 4 dogs from each group were necropsied. One high-dose megestrol-treated and 1 chlormadinone-treated dog had benign mixed mammary tumors. Palpable nodules were first observed at 16 months in the chlormadinone-treated dogs, at 18 months in dogs given the high dose megestrol and at 27 months in the dogs treated with middle-dose megestrol. Transitory nodules were found in 4 control dogs after 21 months and in low dose megestrol-treated dogs at 26 months. Of 38 grossly detected nodules evaluated microscopically from the megestrol-treated dogs 27 were nodular hyperplasia, 5 were benign mixed mammary tumors, 3 were ductal dialatations, 1 was a lymph node, 1 was fat necrosis and 1 was the umbilicus. Of 22 nodules from the chlormadinone-treated dogs 12 were nodular hyperplasia, 4 benign mixed mammary tumors, 1 chondromucoid degeneration and 1 adenocarcinoma with widespread metastases. 3 nodules were lymph nodes and 1 other had no mammary tissue. Involutions, regression and sclerosis of many areas of nodular hyperplasia were evident at 4 years. Thus of the 60 nodules evaluated during the first 4 years of the study 50 were non-neoplastic and 10 were neoplastic. It is considered that the 1 adenocarcinoma may have been spontaneous and not a treatment-related neoplasm. A precursor stage through nodular hyperplasia apparently did not occur.

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