Hybridization in stiu was used to identify the chromosomes that carry rDNA in representative lower primates, including the baboons, Papio cynocephalus and Papio hamadryas; the colobus monkey, Colobus polykomos; the tree shrew, Tupaia glis; the lemur, Lemur fulvis; the saki, Pithecia pithecia; the marmoset, Saguinus nigricollis, and the spider monkey, Ateles geoffroyi. The marker chromosome, common to the Cercopithecines studied to date, carries the rDNA in the baboons. Another marker chromosome carries rDNA in a South American species, the spider monkey. A multichromosomal distribution of rDNA was demonstrated in the tree shrew, lemur, saki, and marmoset. None of the rDNA-containing chromosomes in the prosimians and New World monkeys show homology to the chromosomes that carry rDNA in the Hominids, Pongids, or Old World monkeys.