1. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of benoxaprofen, a novel anti-inflammatory compound, has been studied in the dog, mouse, rat, rabbit, rhesus monkey and man. 2. Benoxaprofen was well absorbed after oral administration of doses of 1 to 10 mg/kg in all six species. Only unchanged drug was detected in plasma. It was extensively bound to plasma proteins, the highest binding occurring in man (99.8%) and rhesus monkey (99.6%). 3. Species differences were observed in the plasma elimination half-life, the longest being in man (33 h). The rat and mouse also had high values (28 and 24 h respectively) whereas in the other species, values were less than 13 h. 4. After an oral dose of [14C]benoxaprofen (20 mg/kg) to female rats, tissue concn. was highest in liver, kidney, lungs, adrenals and ovaries. Tissue distribution in the pregnant rat was identical to the normal female. The compound was found in the foetus but at a concn. lower than in all maternal organs. 5. There was a marked species difference in the route of excretion. In man, rhesus monkey and rabbit, excretion in the urine was a major route, whilst biliary--faecal excretion was the only effective route in the rat and dog. 6. No major metabolic transformation of benoxaprofen was observed. Man and dog excreted the compound predominantly as the ester glucuronide whereas the rat, mouse, rabbit and rhesus monkey excreted a large proportion of the dose unchanged.