All confirmed cases of pancreatic carcinoma in bona fida residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1935 through 1974 were identified and reviewed. The average annual age-adjusted incidence rates were 7.4 for males and 3.5 for females per 100,000 population. Rates increased with age for both sexes and increased slightly over the 40-year period of study, with lower incidence rates observed for rural inhabitants in the first 2 decades. At the time of diagnosis, almost 75% of patients were 60 years of age or older and adenocarcinoma was histologically identified in 92% of the cases. One-year survival was 11%, and all patients died within 3 years of the initial diagnosis. An association between pancreatic carcinoma and diabetes was noted. There does not appear to be a clear association with cholelithiasis or chronic pancreatitis. There was a high percentage (20%) of multiple primary carcinomas and an overrepresentation of metal workers observed among patients with pancreatic carcinoma.