1. Contractions to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and histamine of longitudinal muscle from the isolated ileum of the tree shrew (Tupaia), guinea-pig and rat were investigated by constructing dose-response curves and studying the effects of various antagonists. 2 In the Tupaia and rat ileum the contraction to 5-HT was reduced by methysergide but not affected by tetrodotoxin (TTX), morphine, hexamethonium (C6) or atropine. The response of guinea-pig ileum to 5-HT was not significantly inhibited by methysergide or C6, but was blocked by TTX, morphine and atropine. 3 Histamine-induced contraction of Tupaia and guinea-pig ileum was antagonized by diphenhydramine but not by TTX, morphine, C6 or atropine. Histamine was almost without effect on the rat ileum.