The role of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis with the purified DNA polymerase from the avian myeloblastosis virus has been studied. The polymerase catalyzes the synthesis of DNA in the presence of four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, Mg(2+), and a variety of RNA templates including those isolated from avian myeloblastosis, Rous sarcoma, and Rauscher leukemia viruses; phages f2, MS2, and Qbeta; and synthetic homopolymers such as polyadenylate.polyuridylic acid. The enzyme does not initiate the synthesis of new chains but incorporates deoxynucleotides at 3' hydroxyl ends of primer strands. The product is an RNA.DNA hybrid in which the two polynucleotide components are covalently linked. Free DNA has not been detected among the products formed with the purified enzyme in vitro. The DNA synthesized with avian myeloblastosis virus RNA after alkaline hydrolysis has a sedimentation coefficient of 6 to 7S.