It was shown that low concentrations of ATP (1..10(-4)M) and 10-fold concentrations of AMP (1.10(-3)M) at three constant L-threonine concentrations activated the L-threonine dehydratase activity of L-threonine-L-serine dehydratase from human liver, but had no effect on the L-serine dehydratase activity of this enzyme. Higher concentrations of both nucleotides inhibited the enzyme. The effects of ATP and AMP were specific. The activating and inhibiting effects of various concentrations of ATP and AMP were revealed as changes in the shapes of the curves for the initial reaction rate of the L-threonine dehydratase reaction versus initial substrate concentration. For this reaction the curves were not hyperbolic and were characterized by intermediary plateaux. ATP and AMP also influenced the maximal rate of the enzymatic reaction. Using the desensitization method it was shown that the activating effects of ATP and AMP are of allosteric nature. Thus, human liver L-threonine-L-serine dehydratase is an allosteric enzyme, for which positive allosteric effectors are low concentrations of ATP and AMP and negative allosteric effectors are high concentrations of these nucleotides. A possible mechanism of allosteric regulation of the enzyme under catalysis of the L-threonine dehydratase reaction and the lack of regulation under catalysis of the L-serine dehydratase reaction as well as specificity of the allosteric sites of this enzyme to the two nucleotides and the physiological significance of this process are discussed.