Evidence is presented for the isolation and identification of bacteria able to synthesize an unusual antibiotic containing five bromine atoms per molecule. The identification and taxonomic position of these bacteria was made by use of a computer in conjunction with traditional methods. These microorganisms and closely related strains have been isolated on various occasions from tropical water in the vicinity of Puerto Rico. One bacterium, a pseudomonad, has been given the name Pseudomonas bromoutilis because of its distinctive capability. The antibiotic has been extracted, purified, and obtained in crystal form, and its structure has been determined. Although clinical tests of its properties were not encouraging, it may be of significant value and interest from an ecological standpoint.