The intensity and prevalence of proteinuria and haematuria were studied with urinanalysis reagent strips in a Gambian community in which the intensity of infection with Schistosoma haematobium was high. The level of proteinuria present was shown to be related to the intensity of infection. Follow-up for 12 months showed that infected subjects with heavy proteinuria had a good prognosis. These findings suggest that the urinary protein in such subjects is likely to originate from lesions in the bladder and ureters and that advanced glomerular pathology is probably rare. The relationship of the levels of proteinuria and haematuria to the egg count suggests they may be parameters which could have value as indications for chemotherapy. Detailed study showed that the effect of treating all the subjects who had both 30 mg/100 ml or more of protein and at least a trace of haematuria would have been very similar to treating all those with an egg count of 200 ova/10 ml or more. Since urinalysis with reagent strips is very simple and rapid it could have a role in mass chemotherapy campaigns, particularly those aimed at the identification and treatment of heavily infected subjects.