Activities of some enzymes associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were determined in 48 human breast carcinomas and compared with those found in 35 nonmalignant breast tumours and also in 13 normal breast tissues. In fibrocystic disease only the activity of citrate lyase was markedly higher (14-fold) than in normal tissue. The activities of the remaining enzymes did not differ significantly from those in normal tissue. Enzyme activities in breast carcinoma were 4--160 x those determined in normal tissue according to the following sequence : phosphofructokinase less than malate NADP dehydrogenase less than hexokinase less than lactate dehydrogenase less than isocitrate NADP dehydrogenase less than ATP citrate lyase. Activity of citrate lyase, very low in normal breast (0.0017 mumol/min/g of tissue) rose gradually to 0.039, 0.072 and 0.258 mumol/min/g of tissue in localized fibrocystic disease, fibroadenomas and carcinomas respectively. These data support the idea that citrate lyase may play an important role in lipogenesis in hyperplastic human breast tissues.