DNA polymerase III star replicates a varphiX174 single-stranded, circular DNA primed with a fragment of RNA. This reaction proceeds in two stages. In stage I, a complex is formed requiring DNA polymerase III star, ATP, spermidine, copolymerase III(*), and RNA-primed varphiX174 single-stranded, circular DNA. The complex, isolated by gel filtration, contains ADP and inorganic phosphate (the products of a specific ATP cleavage) as well as spermidine, polymerase III star, and copolymerase III star. In stage II, the chain grows upon addition of deoxynucleoside triphosphates; ADP and inorganic phosphate are discharged and chain elongation is resistant to antibody to copolymerase III star. Thus ATP and copolymerase III star are required to initiate chain growth but not to sustain it.