Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 22.214.171.124) has been purified 55,000-fold from normal human erythrocytes. The native molecular weight of the enzyme is 38,200 as determined by sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation. The subunit molecular weight is 18,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and 17,000 as determined by gel filtration in guanidine hydrochloride, suggesting that the enzyme is a dimer in its native state. Cross-linking the enzyme with dimethylsuberimidate confirms the dimeric structure and peptide mapping data suggested that the subunits are quite similar if not identical. The amino acid composition reveals that 33% of the residues are hydrophobic.