Unconjugated, sulpho- and glucurono-conjugated androgen hormone metabolites have been determined in the urine of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. An increase in the excretory rate of unconjugated 5 beta-reduced 17-ketosteroids and a decrease in that of 17-ketosteroid conjugates, especially in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and in the sum of dehydroepiandrosterone, etiocholanolone and androsterone glucuronoside were observed. In contrast to unconjugated metabolites, there was less significant change in the 5 beta-metabolite conjugates in urine. Corticosteroid treatment resulted in an additional decrease of metabolite excretion by patients. Further study is necessary to determine the causative factors in the altered steroid pattern observed in this severe, non-endocrine disease.