Management of atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis in childhood: a review based on 380 cases

J Pediatr. 1979 Sep;95(3):356-60. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476(79)80506-5.


The medical and surgical therapy of 82 cases of atypical mycobacterial adenitis from Dallas and 298 cases from the literature was reviewed. The 92% cure rate in 149 patients with total surgical excision alone was comparable to the 95% cure rate in 156 patients when excision was followed by antituberculous drug therapy. With incision and drainage in 63 patients the cure rate was 16% whether drugs were given or not. Ten patients were initially treated with antituberculous drugs alone and only one was cured. It is concluded that total surgical excision is definitive therapy for this disease and that antituberculous drugs should be used only when surgery cannot be performed or when complete excision is not possible.

MeSH terms

  • Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child, Preschool
  • Drainage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Lymphadenitis / drug therapy
  • Lymphadenitis / surgery
  • Lymphadenitis / therapy*
  • Male
  • Mycobacterium Infections / therapy*
  • Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous / drug therapy
  • Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous / surgery
  • Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous / therapy*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Rifampin / therapeutic use
  • Suction


  • Antitubercular Agents
  • Rifampin