Duplication (partial trisomy) of the long arm of chromosome 6 has been described in 5 children [Robertson et al, 1975, Chen et al, 1976, Clark, 1977]. We wish to report here an additional case due to a familial translocation in which the proband's karyotype is 46,XX,der(3),rcp(3;6)(p25;q21)mat. The phenotypes of the 6 children with duplication 6q are strikingly similar. Each child has duplication involving approximately the distal 1/3 to 1/2 of the long arm of chromosome 6. Distinctive features present in all 6 children include microcephaly, acrocephaly, prominent forehead, flat facial profile, depressed nasal bridge, flat malar areas, "carp" mouth, micrognathia and mental retardation. The phenotype of the duplication 6q syndrome is distinctive enough to be clinically recognizable.