Rhesus monkeys surgically prepared with intravenous catheters were given 23 hr daily access to injection of either cocaine, d-amphetamine, 1-amphetamine, d-methamphetamine or diethylpropion on a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement for a maximum of 30 days. Responding was maintained by all these drugs but showed both day-to-day and hour-to-hour variability. The two animals self-administering 0.2 mg/kg/infusion cocaine died in less than 5 days. All 6 animals given access to 0.05 mg/kg/infusion d-amphetamine or 0.025 mg/kg/infusion d-methamphetamine also died, but tended to survive more days than animals exposed to cocaine. Three of the 5 animals whose responding was maintained by 0.5 mg/kg/infusion diethylpropion and one of the two animals whose responding was maintained by 0.05 mg/kg/infusion 1-amphetamine survived the entire 30 days despite high rates of intake. Food intake was initially decreased, but often returned to predrug levels and was not related to level of drug intake.