The cardiovascular effects of hypoglycaemia, with and without beta-blockade, were compared in fourteen healthy men. Eight received insulin alone, and eight, including two of the original insulin-only group, were given propranolol and insulin. In the insulin-group the period of hypoglycaemia was associated with an increase in heart-rate and a fall in diastolic blood-pressure. In the propranolol-insulin group there was a significant fall in heart-rate in most subjects and an increase in diastolic pressure. Typical S-T/T changes occurred in the insulin-group but in none of the propranolol-insulin group. Hypertension in diabetics prone to hypoglycaemia attacks should not be treated with beta-blockers because these drugs may cause a sharp rise in blood-pressure in such patients.