Immunochemical techniques have been utilized to study the effect of thyroid status on the content and rates of synthesis and degradation of pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat liver. Liver from hyperthyroid rats had twice the pyruvate carboxylase activity of normal rats while thyroidectomized rats had about two-thirds of normal activity. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity was unchanged in the hyperthyroid state but was significantly reduced (by a third) in hypothyroid rats. Changes in catalytic activity during altered thyroid status were by immunochemical means to be closely related to the amount of the hepatic enzymes present. Isotopic studies showed that the changes in the content of pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase reflected alterations in the rate of the synthesis of the enzymes with the degradation rates little affected by thyroid status. The half-life for pyruvate carboxylase was 4.6 days, and that for pyruvate dehydrogenase, 8.1 days. In both cases, the turnover time was slower than that of the average mitochondrial protein (t1/2 = 3.8 days) for the control animals.