Broadened concepts of intellectual functions have shown that many varieties of mental subnormality may be preventable or subject to improvement with proper treatment. Many types of neurologic dysfunction are accompanied by learning disorders based on specific intellectual deficits.A more refined delineation of the higher cerebral functions of each child with a learning disorder provides the basis for improved specific remedial educational techniques. Such detailed assessment of higher functions of the nervous system can be greatly enhanced by the appropriate special evaluations carried out by well trained psychologists, speech pathologists and educational consultants, working in cooperation with physicians. The varieties of adjustment problems of children and emotional impact of a learning disorder should be recognized as early as possible and treated appropriately. Motor and perceptual-motor therapies may have limited value in some cases but may be harmful if indiscriminately applied. Psychotropic drugs have a relatively limited place in the management of learning disorders but may be immensely valuable in some cases by helping to control specific behavior problems which interfere with learning processes. Physicians have a major responsibility to provide help and leadership in dealing with learning disorders.