Long-term outcome of major psychoses. I. Schizophrenia and affective disorders compared with psychiatrically symptom-free surgical conditions

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1979 Nov;36(12):1295-301. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1979.01780120025002.


We conducted a 30- to 40-year field follow-up of 685 patients with schizophrenia, affective disorders, and nonpsychiatric conditions. Long-term outcome was analyzed in terms of the patients' marital, residential, occupational, and psychiatric status. On the whole, psychiatric patients showed a significantly poorer outcome than the surgical controls. On the basis of long-term outcome, schizophrenia, and affective disorders, selected according to the specified research criteria, were significantly different: schizophrenia definitely showed poorer outcome than affective disorders. However, no significant differences in all four outcome variables were found between mania and depression. We hope that the present data on long-term outcome of the typical cases can be used to compare outcome of other psychiatric disorders, such as undiagnosed psychoses, having mixtures of schizophrenic and affective features. In doing this, we hope to charify our understanding of undiagnosed psychoses and their relationship to schizophrenia and affective disorders.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bipolar Disorder / rehabilitation*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Iowa
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Marriage
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupations
  • Prognosis
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Schizophrenia / rehabilitation*
  • Social Adjustment*
  • Surgical Procedures, Operative
  • Time Factors